Appendix B2.

Individual Signs, Symptoms, and Point Care Tests Used in Clinical Decision Rules (CDRs) to Diagnose or Rule Out Pneumonia

Author, YearTemp (C)Pulse (per min)CracklesDecreased breath soundsResp (per min)Other signs, symptoms or point of care tests
Diehr, 1984>37.8>25sore throatnight sweatsmyalgiarhinorrheasputum
Ebrahimzadeh, 2015≥38≥100XX≥20CRPdullness on percussionrhonchiESRWBC
Gennis, 1989>37.8>100X>20raleswheezesrhonchi
Heckerling, 1990>37.8>100Xralesabsence of asthma
Holm, 2007CRPclinical pneumoniaSATO2
Hopstaken, 2003≥38CRP<20diarrheaESR <20dry cough
Melbye, 1992XXpleural rubsdullness on percussion
Obrien, 2006≥38≥100XX>20rhonchidullness on percussion
Saldias, 2007≥38≥100X≥20orthopneadullness on percussionabnormal auscultation
Singal, 1989XXcough
Steurer, 2011XCRP >11dyspnea
van Vugt, 2013>37.8>100XXCRP >30breathlessnessVesicular soundsabsence of runny nose
  • Boxes in gray indicate not used in study. X: used in study but did not give specific value; Temp: temperature in Celsius.

  • Resp: respiratory rate; CRP: c-reactive protein ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; WBC: white blood cell count; SATO2: oxygen saturation.