Table 2.

Positive Screens from Prescription Drug Misuse Screening Instruments

Research Assistant-Administered Screening ToolsComputer-Administered Tool
RxCAGE (CAGE modified to focus on prescription drug misuse)POMI-e (Expanded Prescription Opioid Misuse Index)Prescription misuse items
Questionsn (%) yesQuestionsn (%) yesQuestionsn (%) yes
Have you ever felt the need to Cut down on your use of prescription drugs?528 (22.6)Do you ever use more of your medication, that is, take a higher dose, than is prescribed for you?350 (15.0)Taken more pills than the doctor told you to113 (4.8)
Have you ever felt Annoyed by remarks by your friends or loved ones made about your use of prescription drugs?246 (10.5)Do you ever use your medication more often, that is, shorten the time between dosages, than is prescribed for you?368 (15.7)Taken pills more often than the doctor told you74 (3.2)
Have you ever felt Guilty or remorseful about your use of prescription drugs?219 (9.4)Do you ever need early refills for your medication?274 (11.7)Used medicine prescribed for someone else91 (3.9)
Have you Ever used prescription drugs as a way to “get going” or “calm down?”497 (21.2)Do you ever feel high or get a buzz after using your medication?390 (16.7)Got the same medicine from more than one doctor18 (0.8)
Do you ever take your medication because you are upset, using the medication to relieve or cope with problems other than pain?260 (11.1)
Have you ever gone to multiple physicians, including emergency room doctors, seeking more of your medication?99 (4.2)
≥1 item(s) positive884 (37.8)≥1 item(s) positive847 (36.2)≥ 1 item(s) positive180 (7.7)
≥ 2items positive358 (15.3)≥2 items positive435 (18.6)≥ 2 items positive81 (3.5)
  • RxCAGE, Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener questionnaire modified to focus on prescription medications; POMI-e, Prescription Opioid Misuse Index expanded to include all prescription medications.