Table 1.

Characteristics of Included Studies

Author, YearCountryDesignSettingYear RecruitedSample SizeInclusion AgeMean or Median Age
Diehr, 19847United StatesProspectiveEDNot reported1758AdultsNot reported
Gennis, 198920United StatesProspectiveED1984 to 1985308≥16 years53.6 years (mean)
Singal, 198914United StatesProspectiveED1986 to 1987255≥18 yearsNot reported
Heckerling, 19907United StatesProspectiveED1987 to 19881436≥16 years45.4 years (mean): Illinois/Nebraska; 41.4 years (mean): Virginia
Melbye, 199217NorwayProspectiveED1988 to 1989581≥18 years32.1 (mean)
Hopstaken, 200318The NetherlandsCross-sectional/prospectivePrimary care1998 to 1999246≥18 years52 years (mean)
O'Brien, 200616United StatesCase-control/prospectiveOutpatient/ED2004 to 2005700≥18 years65 years (mean): cases; 66 years (mean): controls
Holm, 200719DenmarkProspectivePrimary care2002 to 2003364≥18 years50 years (median)
Saldias, 200715ChileProspectiveED2005325>15 years53.4 years (mean)
Steurer, 20118SwitzerlandProspectivePrimary care2006 to 2009621≥18 years46.8 years (mean)
van Vugt, 2013912 European countriesProspectivePrimary care2007 to 20102820Adults50 years (mean)
Ebrahimzadeh, 201521IranCase-control/prospectiveOutpatient/ED2008 to 2009840≥18 years60 years (mean): cases; 63 years (mean): controls
  • ED, emergency department.