Table 4.

Participant Characteristics of Those at Risk for Prescription Misuse Based on POMI-e Scores of ≥2

CharacteristicsPOMI-e <2 items endorsed (n = 1904)POMI-e ≥2 items endorsed (n = 435)P value
n (%)Mean (SD)n (%)Mean (SD)
Demographic Characteristics
Age46.43 (11.72)44.8 (10.39).004
Gender
    Male694 (36.4)203 (46.7)<.001
    Female1210 (63.6)232 (53.3)
Race
    White429 (22.5)138 (31.7)<.001
    Black1370 (72.0)278 (63.9)
    Other105 (5.5)19 (4.4)
Employment*
    Full time273 (14.5)45 (10.4).015
    Unemployed818 (43.3)217 (50.0)
    Other797 (42.2)172 (39.6)
Education*
    Less than high school429 (23.3)111 (26.1).132
    High school694 (37.7)171 (40.1)
    College/advanced degree/technical training717 (39.0)144 (33.8)
Medical Characteristics
Chronic Diseases
    Hypertension1034 (54.3)225 (51.7).330
    Heart disease209 (11.0)225 (51.7).702
    Asthma448 (23.5)116 (26.7.170
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease211 (11.1)54 (12.4).430
    Arthritis683 (35.9)195 (44.8).001
    Migraines253 (13.3)71 (16.3).098
    Any chronic disease1471 (77.3)351 (80.7).12
    Sum number of chronic diseases1.49 (1.19)1.62 (1.22).037
Past 30 days sleep rating
    Very good209 (11.0)18 (4.1)<.001
    Good514 (27.0)63 (14.5)
    Fair699 (36.7)179 (41.1)
    Poor482 (25.3)175 (40.2)
Overall health rating
    Very good or excellent447 (23.5)65 (14.9)<.001
    Good708 (37.2)165 (37.9)
    Fair or poor749 (39.3)205 (47.1)
Mental Health Characteristics
Anxiety514 (27.0)212 (48.7)<.001
Depression633 (33.2)242 (55.6)<.001
Substance Use Characteristics
Lifetime cigarette use*
    Smoked ≥100 cigarettes806 (42.4)276 (63.7)<.001
    Smoked <100 cigarettes410 (21.6)76 (17.6)
    Never smoked685 (36.0)81 (18.7)
Current smoker757 (39.8)280 (64.4)<.001
Illicit drug use
    Past 30 days illicit drug use157 (8.2)121 (27.8)<.001
    CAGE-AID positive (≥1 positive)117 (6.1)110 (25.3)<.001
Alcohol use
    ≥ 2 TACE + with women or ≥1 CAGE + with men226 (25.5)132 (51.6)<.001
Positive for illicit drugs (as measured by CAGE-AID) or alcohol (as measured by ≥2 TACE for women or ≥1 CAGE for men)285 (32.2)164 (64.1)<.001
  • CAGE, Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener; CAGE-AID, CAGE Adapted to Include Drugs; TACE, Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut down, and Eye-opener; SD, standard deviation; POMI-e, Prescription Opioid Misuse Index expanded to include all prescription medications.

  • * Nonresponders to these survey questions were not included in the analysis.