Table 2.

A Comparison of Beginning to End Measures for Those Who Remained on Opioid Medication During the First 18 Months of the Structured Program

Group ABeginningEndTDfP Value95% CI
MEDD*30.6128.840.76316.457(−3.14 to 6.67)
MEDD (range)3.3 to 603.3 to 60
MEDD (SD)19.0318.60
BPI Pain Scale (0 to 10)* (mean)5.756.200.9516.356(−1.44 to 0.55)
BPI pain (range)3 to 83.8 to 9.3
Pain (SD)1.221.77
BPI Quality of Life Scale (0 to 10)* (mean)5.846.110.46016.651(−1.50 to 0.96)
BPI quality of life (range)1.7 to 9.11.7 to 9.7
BPI quality of life (SD)2.082.21
Zung Depression Scale (20 to 80)* (mean)40.3542.370.77216.451(−7.93 to 3.6)
Zung (range)29 to 5725 to 53
Zung (SD)8.27.53
  • Group A is those patients who continued opioid use and engaged the program. Morphine equivalents represents the mean MEDD in mg/day. BPI Pain Scale is the mean of pain scores for the BPI with range of 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximal pain). BPI Quality of Life is the mean score for how much pain has interfered with quality of life with range of 0 (no impairment from pain) to 10 (maximal impairment from pain). Zung Depression Scale is in raw score with a range of 20 to 80 possible, with less than 40 considered normal mood and above this with progressively worse mood.

  • * Analysis is with paired t-Table test.

  • BPI, Brief Pain Inventory Short Form; CI, confidential interval; MEDD, morphine-equivalent daily dose; SD, standard deviation.