Table 1.

Socio-Demographic and Health Characteristics of SMARTSteps Participants by Reported Use of Complementary Health Approaches (CHA) N = 278

Sociodemographic CharacteristicsCHA Use Reported, n, % (N = 143)§No CHA Use Reported, n, % (N = 135)P-Value
Age, years (SD)55.4 (9.3)55.9 (7.5).90
    Asian/Pacific Islander51.0%69.6%
Born outside the United States80.2%91.3%.01
    Cantonese speaking42.0%63.7%.001
    Spanish speaking24.5%14.1%
    English peaking33.6%22.2%
Educational attainment
    Some high school or less48.4%57.1%.09
    High school graduate or GED20.6%23.0%
    Some college, college graduate, or above31.0%19.8%
Employment status
    Employed full time24.6%18.3%.80
    Part time46.8%49.2%
Annual household income <$20,00065.3%61.3%.55
Insurance type
    Healthy worker/healthy SF74.1%71.6%
Limited health literacy34.9%51.2%.009
Diabetes-related clinical, medication
    Adherence and functional health indicators*
        Years with diabetes, mean (SD)7.2 (6.1)6.8 (5.2).99
        Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) > 8.0%33.8%16.2%.01
        Hemoglobin A1c (A1C), mean (SD)7.91 (1.7)7.41 (1.3).06
        Low density lipoprotein (LDL), mg/dL, mean (SD)100.9 (35.2)84.7 (28.8).02
        Non-adherence-oral diabetes medication39.5%24.2%.03
        Non-adherence-cardiometabolic medication39.6%22.5%.01
        Food insecurity9.5%5.6%.04
        SF-12 physical component, mean (SD)44.9 (9.8)47.9 (8.8).009
        SF-12 mental component, mean (SD)47.8 (11.6)52.2 (9.9).002
        Bed days in last month, mean (SD)1.9 (5.2)0.7 (3.4)<.000
        Insulin use19.6%15.6%.38
  • * , Sample size: for A1C, n = 148; for LDL, n = 89.

  • Non-adherence was measured using the continuous medication gap and a 15-day to 6-monthnth gap in refilling specific prescriptions.

  • Replied “often” or “sometimes” to having put off paying for diabetes medicine so would have money for food in last 12 months.

  • § With spirituality, prayer, religion excluded, n = 133 CHA users.