Appendix Table 2.

Health Status of U.S. Adults According to Mental Health Disorder Status and Opioid Use

No Mental Health DisorderMental Health DisorderP Value*P Value
Non–Opioid User (n = 42,908)Opioid User (n = 1,983)Non–Opioid User (n = 5,690)Opioid User (n = 1,310)
Health status
    SF-12, mean (SE)
        PCS score50.9 (0.08)37.8 (0.47)47.7 (0.20)33.5 (0.50)<.001<.001
        MCS score53.1 (0.06)49.6 (0.32)43.9 (0.20)40.6 (0.40)<.001<.001
    Fair or poor overall health8.832.221.054.3<.001<.001
    Self-reported limitation due to pain<.001<.001
        None or little84.640.269.421.2
    Number of comorbidities<.001<.001
    Self-reported limitation
        Any self-reported limitation19.661.242.781.2<.001<.001
        Physical limitation8.340.121.059.3<.001<.001
        Social limitation2.818.711.736.0<.001<.001
        Cognitive limitation2.711.313.630.9<.001<.001
Healthcare use
    Has usual source of care71.086.885.091.3<.001<.01
    Had inpatient surgery2.918.24.218.0<.001.93
    Had outpatient surgery3.617.56.113.7<.001.04
    Had at least one ED visit for injury15.341.525.143.5<.001.38
  • Data are percentages unless otherwise indicated. All estimates are weighted to represent the U.S. noninstitutionalized population. The t test was used to compare means, and the χ2 test was used to compare proportions.

  • * P value compares non–opioid users with opioid users among adults with mental health disorders.

  • P value compares adult opioid users with versus those without mental health disorders.

  • ED, emergency department; MCS, mental component summary; PCS, physical component summary; SE, standard error; SF-12, 12-item Short Form.