Table 1.

Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status of U.S. Adults According to Mental Health Disorder Status and Opioid Use

No Mental Health DisorderMental Health DisorderP Value*P Value
Non–Opioid User (n = 42,908)Opioid User (n = 1,983)Non–Opioid User (n = 5,690)Opioid User (n = 1,310)
No. of U.S. adults, millions190.710.131.47.2
Sociodemographic characteristics
    Age, years<.001<.001
        Non-Hispanic white62.874.179.380.6
        Non-Hispanic black12.
        Other or multiple races8.
    Marital status<.001<.001
        Divorced, separated, or widowed17.928.427.640.3
        Never married28.716.525.514.9
        High school or less56.363.553.967.9
        Some college or bachelor's degree27.525.828.224.5
        Advanced degree16.210.717.97.6
    Health insurance<.001<.001
    Health status
        SF-12, mean (SE)
            PCS score50.9 (0.08)37.8 (0.47)47.7 (0.20)33.5 (0.50)<.001<.001
            MCS score53.1 (0.06)49.6 (0.32)43.9 (0.20)40.6 (0.40)<.001<.001
        Fair or poor overall health8.832.221.054.3<.001<.001
        Number of comorbidities<.001<.001
  • Data are percentages unless otherwise indicated. All estimates are weighted to represent the U.S. noninstitutionalized population. The χ2 test was used to compare proportions.

  • * P value compares nonopioid users with opioid users among adults with mental health disorders.

  • P value compares adult opioid users with versus those without mental health disorders.

  • MCS, mental component summary; PCS, physical component summary; SE, standard error; SF-12, 12-item Short Form.