Appendix

Individual patient data. Continuity correction applied to avoid division by zero where necessary

StudySign or symptomAge GroupVaccinatedTPFPFNTNSensSpecLR+LR-
Preziosi, 2003Alternation of consciousness or seizuresChildrenNo00243300.000.970.137.66
Preziosi, 2003Alternation of consciousness or seizuresChildrenYes005941220.000.990.214.81
Schlapfer, 1995Antibiotic useBothYes1336913590.130.911.370.96
Karagul, 2015Antibiotic useAdultNR2911611580.730.331.090.83
Preziosi, 2003ApneaChildrenNo30240300.020.970.521.91
Preziosi, 2003ApneaChildrenYes005941220.000.990.214.81
Philipson K, 2013ApneaChildrenNR1111530.080.984.500.93
Harndon A, 2006ApneaChildrenYes141250960.220.891.970.88
Philipson K, 2013ApneaAdultNR22091250.180.861.320.95
Gentile, 2014ApneaChildrenYes41521422430.220.821.270.94
Senzilet, 2001ApneaAdultPartial1255762990.140.840.881.02
Narkeviciute I, 2005ApneaChildrenYes1310.03
Gilberg, 2002CDC clinical criteriaAdultsPartial5542750.890.110.991.06
Strebel, 2001CDC clinical criteriaBothYes271530321.000.171.210.00
Ghanaie RM, 2010CDC clinical criteriaChildrenYes202611460.950.151.120.32
Philipson K, 2013Chest painChildrenNR21110430.170.800.821.05
Philipson K, 2013Chest painAdultNR34081050.270.720.991.00
Park, 2014Chest painAdultPartial693283630.180.800.871.03
Miyashita, 2013Chest painAdultNR663821177500.360.661.070.96
Park, 2014ChillsAdultPartial026344300.000.940.001.06
Preziosi, 2003Conjunctival injectionChildrenNo222252150.910.171.100.52
Preziosi, 2003Conjunctival injectionChildrenYes38960205620.650.511.330.68
Gentile, 2014Cough (any)ChildrenYes1762697260.960.091.050.43
Narkeviciute I, 2005Cough (any)ChildrenYes3201.00
Postels-Multani, 1995Cough (any)AdultsNo7270.91
Schlapfer, 1995Cough < 14 daysBothYes9036220710.820.160.981.11
Heininger, 1997Cough > 14 daysBothNo42116240.21
Narkeviciute I, 2005Cough > 21 daysChildrenYes22100.69
Postels-Multani, 1995Cough > 21 daysAdultsNo63160.80
Schlapfer, 1995Cough > 28 days at follow-upBothYes67139252390.730.631.980.43
Liese JG, 2003Cough > 42 daysChildrenNo3501.00
Liese JG, 2003Cough > 42 daysChildrenYes7470.91
Narkeviciute I, 2005Cough 15 - 21 daysChildrenYes3290.09
Narkeviciute I, 2005Cough 7–14 daysChildrenYes7250.22
Park, 2014CracklesAdultPartial023344330.000.950.001.05
Preziosi, 2003CyanosisChildrenNo00243300.000.970.137.66
Preziosi, 2003CyanosisChildrenYes005941220.000.990.214.81
Philipson K, 2013CyanosisChildrenNR1411500.080.931.130.99
Harndon A, 2006CyanosisChildrenYes66581020.090.941.690.96
Philipson K, 2013CyanosisAdultNR06111390.000.960.001.04
Gentile, 2014CyanosisChildrenYes106150771450.580.491.140.86
Philipson K, 2013DizzinessChildrenNR3109440.250.811.350.92
Philipson K, 2013DizzinessAdultNR33081150.270.791.320.92
Philipson K, 2013DyspneaChildrenNR0112530.000.980.001.02
Philipson K, 2013DyspneaAdultNR012111330.000.920.001.09
Park, 2014DyspneaAdultPartial450304060.120.891.070.99
Gentile, 2014DyspneaChildrenYes102189811060.560.360.871.23
Miyashita, 2013DyspneaAdultNR562971278350.310.741.170.94
Philipson K, 2013EpistaxisAdultNR01111440.000.990.001.01
Philipson K, 2013EpistaxisChildrenNR0312510.000.940.001.06
Philipson K, 2013Exercise intoleranceChildrenNR9373170.750.311.090.79
Philipson K, 2013Exercise intoleranceAdultNR9922530.820.371.290.50
Miyashita, 2013Exposed to cough by family member or colleagueAdultNR97273868590.530.762.200.62
Preziosi, 2003Facial swellingChildrenNo11511128190.470.631.290.83
Preziosi, 2003Facial swellingChildrenYes148164461060.250.871.900.86
Park, 2014Female sexAdultPartial2732971270.790.281.100.74
Granstrom, 1991FeverBothNo7151561070.040.880.351.09
Park, 2014FeverAdultPartial221324350.060.951.280.99
Schlapfer, 1995FeverBothYes1253622440.160.820.911.02
Karagul, 2015FeverAdultNR2456161180.600.681.860.59
Gentile, 2014FeverChildrenYes531221301730.290.590.701.21
Miyashita, 2013FeverAdultNR272341568980.150.790.711.07
Heininger, 1993FeverChildrenNo3236956926590.050.880.441.08
Heininger, 1997FeverBothNo8714390.06
Philipson K, 2013HeadacheChildrenNR7425120.580.220.751.88
Harndon A, 2006HeadacheChildrenYes296335440.450.410.771.33
Park, 2014HeadacheAdultPartial368313880.090.850.591.07
Philipson K, 2013HeadacheAdultNR71024430.640.300.901.23
Philipson K, 2013Headache absentChildrenNR5127420.420.781.880.75
Philipson K, 2013Headache absentAdultNR44371020.360.701.230.90
Harndon A, 2006Headache absentChildrenYes354429630.550.591.330.77
Park, 2014Headache absentAdultPartial313883680.910.151.070.59
Park, 2014HemoptysisAdultPartial18334480.030.981.680.99
Gilberg, 2002History of whooping coughAdultsPartial16532240.330.831.930.81
Gilberg, 2002HoarsenessAdultsPartial312034280.480.581.140.90
Philipson K, 2013MalaiseChildrenNR1211520.080.962.250.95
Philipson K, 2013MalaiseAdultNR013111320.000.910.001.10
Park, 2014MalaiseAdultPartial214324420.060.971.920.97
Strebel, 2001Male sexBothYes1161161240.410.671.240.88
Narkeviciute I, 2005Male sexChildrenYes11210.34
Preziosi, 2003Mechanical complicationChildrenNo40239300.020.970.651.53
Preziosi, 2003Mechanical complicationChildrenYes705871220.010.991.660.60
Philipson K, 2013MyalgiaChildrenNR0812460.000.850.001.17
Park, 2014MyalgiaAdultPartial228324280.060.940.961.00
Philipson K, 2013MyalgiaAdultNR24591000.180.690.591.19
Philipson K, 2013Nausea or retchingChildrenNR21110430.170.800.821.05
Philipson K, 2013Nausea or retchingAdultNR22691190.180.821.011.00
Granstrom, 1991Overall clinical impressionBothNo730901220.450.9955.610.02
Heininger, 2000Overall clinical impressionBothPartial3728472660.440.904.630.62
Schlapfer, 1995Overall clinical impressionBothYes3638693700.340.913.680.72
Heininger, 1993Overall clinical impressionChildrenNo34399520016370.630.621.670.59
Heininger, 1997Overall clinical impressionBothNo10559430.53
Preziosi, 2003Paroxysmal coughChildrenNo1761067200.720.672.170.41
Preziosi, 2003Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes28128313940.470.772.060.68
Park, 2005Paroxysmal coughAdultYes3640351.000.351.540.03
Gilberg, 2002Paroxysmal coughAdultsPartial6450530.930.060.981.28
Karagul, 2015Paroxysmal coughAdultNR3055101190.750.682.370.37
Harndon A, 2006Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes55829260.860.241.130.58
Schlapfer, 1995Paroxysmal coughBothYes60158442300.580.591.420.71
Strebel, 2001Paroxysmal coughBothYes271620231.000.121.140.00
Ghanaie RM, 2010Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes1717741300.810.421.400.45
Gentile, 2014Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes140178431170.770.401.270.59
Senzilet, 2001Paroxysmal coughAdultPartial823186360.930.101.040.67
Park, 2014Paroxysmal coughAdultPartial2732871280.790.281.100.73
Miyashita, 2013Paroxysmal coughAdultNR165849182830.900.251.200.39
Heininger, 1993Paroxysmal coughChildrenNo409167019213580.680.451.230.71
Heininger, 1997Paroxysmal coughBothNo16053430.82
Liese JG, 2003Paroxysmal coughChildrenNo3320.94
Liese JG, 2003Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes54270.67
Narkeviciute I, 2005Paroxysmal coughChildrenYes2750.84
Karagul, 2015Paroxysmal cough + whoopingAdultNR65341690.150.975.220.88
Gilberg, 2002Paroxysmal cough > 21 daysAdultsPartial50391280.810.170.971.14
Liese JG, 2003Paroxysmal cough > 21 daysChildrenNo2960.83
Liese JG, 2003Paroxysmal cough > 21 daysChildrenYes33480.41
Postels-Multani, 1995Paroxysmal cough > 21 daysAdultsNo50290.63
He, 1998Paroxysmal cough > 7 daysBothYes66353001630.180.821.021.00
Heininger, 2000Paroxysmal cough OR whooping cough OR post-tussive vomitingBothPartial65187191070.770.361.220.62
Gentile, 2014PneumoniaChildrenYes11291722660.060.900.611.04
Miyashita, 2013Post-tussive gaggingAdultNR90259938730.490.772.150.66
Gilberg, 2002Post-tussive inspiratory effortAdultsPartial382531170.550.400.931.11
Preziosi, 2003Post-tussive sticky sputumChildrenNo228251550.940.171.130.37
Preziosi, 2003Post-tussive sticky sputumChildrenYes5139581270.860.221.110.62
Gilberg, 2002Post-tussive vomitingAdultsPartial171152420.250.791.190.95
Granstrom, 1991Post-tussive vomitingBothNo28161351060.170.871.310.95
Preziosi, 2003Post-tussive vomitingChildrenNo1801663140.740.471.390.56
Karagul, 2015Post-tussive vomitingAdultNR1619241550.400.893.660.67
Park, 2005Post-tussive vomitingAdultYes1172820.330.831.900.81
Philipson K, 2013Post-tussive vomitingChildrenNR7205340.580.631.580.66
Harndon A, 2006Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes454219660.700.611.810.49
Philipson K, 2013Post-tussive vomitingAdultNR54361020.450.701.530.78
Gentile, 2014Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes40451432500.220.851.430.92
Strebel, 2001Post-tussive vomitingBothYes1559121260.560.681.740.65
Ghanaie RM, 2010Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes136082470.620.803.170.47
Preziosi, 2003Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes36762227600.620.491.220.78
Park, 2014Post-tussive vomitingAdultPartial1176233800.320.831.940.81
Senzilet, 2001Post-tussive vomitingAdultPartial40101482530.450.711.590.76
Schlapfer, 1995Post-tussive vomitingBothYes49108552800.470.721.690.73
Miyashita, 2013Post-tussive vomitingAdultNR462281379040.250.801.250.94
He, 1998Post-tussive vomitingBothYes26620.30
Heininger, 1997Post-tussive vomitingBothNo7416490.53
Liese JG, 2003Post-tussive vomitingChildrenNo2690.74
Liese JG, 2003Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes32490.40
Narkeviciute I, 2005Post-tussive vomitingChildrenYes10220.31
Postels-Multani, 1995Post-tussive vomitingAdultsNo33460.42
Karagul, 2015Post-tussive vomiting + paroxysmal coughAdultNR1518251560.380.903.630.70
Karagul, 2015Post-tussive vomiting + whoopingAdultNR40361740.120.9920.950.05
Liese JG, 2003Post-tussive vomiting > 21 daysChildrenNo6290.17
Liese JG, 2003Post-tussive vomiting > 21 daysChildrenYes3780.04
Miyashita, 2013Preceding RTIAdultNR835611005710.450.500.921.08
Schlapfer, 1995Previous immunizationBothYes26185441350.370.420.641.49
Preziosi, 2003Pulmonary signChildrenNo292214280.120.931.790.94
Preziosi, 2003Pulmonary signChildrenYes57135371090.100.890.901.01
Park, 2014RhinorrheaAdultPartial12173222830.350.620.931.04
Park, 2014RhonchiAdultPartial731274250.210.933.030.85
Preziosi, 2003Runny noseChildrenNo2002043100.820.331.230.53
Preziosi, 2003Runny noseChildrenYes5019593270.840.221.080.71
Gentile, 2014SeizuresChildrenYes471792880.020.980.921.00
Harndon A, 2006Sinus painChildrenYes92355840.140.790.651.09
Philipson K, 2013Sinus painChildrenNR6236310.500.571.170.87
Philipson K, 2013Sinus painAdultNR4667790.360.540.801.17
Philipson K, 2013Sleep disturbed by coughChildrenNR1311510.080.941.500.97
Philipson K, 2013Sleep disturbed by coughAdultNR110101350.090.931.320.98
Gilberg, 2002Sleep disturbed by coughAdultsPartial6046970.870.131.000.99
Senzilet, 2001Sleep disturbed by coughAdultPartial7427614780.840.221.080.72
Miyashita, 2013Sleep disturbed by coughAdultNR133747503850.730.341.100.80
Postels-Multani, 1995Sleep disturbed by coughAdultsNo41380.52
Preziosi, 2003SneezingChildrenNo224261940.920.131.060.59
Philipson K, 2013SneezingChildrenNR8434110.670.200.841.64
Harndon A, 2006SneezingChildrenYes295935490.450.450.831.21
Preziosi, 2003SneezingChildrenYes52510469180.880.151.040.79
Philipson K, 2013SneezingAdultNR81073380.730.260.991.04
Philipson K, 2013Sore throatChildrenNR3109440.250.811.350.92
Philipson K, 2013Sore throatAdultNR22691190.180.821.011.00
Park, 2014Sore throatAdultPartial8123263330.240.730.871.05
Philipson K, 2013Sputum productionChildrenNR1045290.830.171.001.00
Harndon A, 2006Sputum productionChildrenYes446019480.700.441.260.68
Philipson K, 2013Sputum productionAdultNR111270181.000.121.140.00
Park, 2014Sputum productionAdultPartial2929051660.850.361.340.40
Miyashita, 2013Sputum productionAdultNR673781167540.370.671.100.95
Park, 2014StridorAdultPartial14334520.030.993.350.98
Philipson K, 2013SweatingChildrenNR8354190.670.351.030.95
Harndon A, 2006SweatingChildrenYes245639520.380.480.731.29
Philipson K, 2013SweatingAdultNR7784670.640.461.180.79
Philipson K, 2013Urinary incontinenceChildrenNR0012540.070.984.000.25
Philipson K, 2013Urinary incontinenceAdultNR110101350.090.931.320.98
Philipson K, 2013URTI symptomsChildrenNR0612480.000.890.001.13
Philipson K, 2013URTI symptomsAdultNR118101270.090.880.731.04
Philipson K, 2013WheezingChildrenNR3299250.250.460.471.62
Park, 2014WheezingAdultPartial030344260.000.930.001.07
Harndon A, 2006WheezingChildrenYes194745610.300.560.681.24
Philipson K, 2013WheezingAdultNR9862590.820.411.380.45
Philipson K, 2013Wheezing absentChildrenNR9253290.750.541.620.47
Philipson K, 2013Wheezing absentAdultNR2599860.180.590.451.38
Harndon A, 2006Wheezing absentChildrenYes456119470.700.441.240.68
Park, 2014Wheezing absentAdultPartial344260301.000.071.070.00
Liese JG, 2003Whooping > 21 daysChildrenNo15200.43
Liese JG, 2003Whooping > 21 daysChildrenYes11700.14
Preziosi, 2003Whooping coughChildrenYes9614981210.160.9919.720.85
Preziosi, 2003Whooping coughChildrenNo832160280.340.935.120.71
Granstrom, 1991Whooping coughBothNo6051031170.370.968.980.66
Karagul, 2015Whooping coughAdultNR65341690.150.975.220.88
Gilberg, 2002Whooping coughAdultsPartial111158410.160.790.751.07
Philipson K, 2013Whooping coughChildrenNR4178370.330.691.060.97
Schlapfer, 1995Whooping coughBothYes3327442920.430.925.060.62
Harndon A, 2006Whooping coughChildrenYes322932780.500.731.840.69
Park, 2005Whooping coughAdultYes2281710.670.722.400.46
Philipson K, 2013Whooping coughAdultNR3588870.270.600.681.21
Park, 2014Whooping coughAdultPartial460303960.120.870.891.02
Senzilet, 2001Whooping coughAdultPartial2596632580.280.731.050.98
Miyashita, 2013Whooping coughAdultNR361561479760.200.861.430.93
Ghanaie RM, 2010Whooping coughChildrenYes1516761400.710.461.310.63
Strebel, 2001Whooping coughBothYes7201580.26
He, 1998Whooping coughBothYes23650.26
Liese JG, 2003Whooping coughChildrenNo25100.71
Liese JG, 2003Whooping coughChildrenYes38430.47
Narkeviciute I, 2005Whooping coughChildrenYes9230.28
Postels-Multani, 1995Whooping coughAdultsNo6730.08
  • FN, false negative; FP, false positive; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; NR, not reported; sens, sensitivity; spec, specificity; TP, true positive; TN, true negative.