Table 3.

Odds of Access and Utilization of Health Care as a Function of Year and Heritage Group Interaction Citizenship, 2011 to 2015 National Health Interview Survey (N = 86,467)

InsuredDelay in CareForgo CareED UsePhysician Visit
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
    Non-Latino white
    Puerto Rican1.050.88–1.260.970.78––1.441.59*1.36–1.850.940.81–1.09
    Central American0.63*0.55–0.721.100.93–1.291.35*1.14–1.601.100.94–1.280.920.81–1.04
    Other Latinos1.140.90–1.430.820.63–1.070.920.70––1.500.910.76–1.08
Time period
    Before ACA
    After ACA1.56*1.46–1.670.78*0.74–0.840.78*0.72–0.840.960.91–1.011.07*1.02–1.12
Heritage group × time period
    White × after ACA
    Puerto Rican × after ACA0.980.72–1.320.710.52–0.980.53*0.35–0.790.760.60–0.970.880.70–1.11
    Mexican × after ACA1.030.92–1.160.820.71–0.950.900.76–––1.17
    Cuban × after ACA1.210.85–1.730.700.43–1.150.640.39–1.060.670.38–1.170.900.70–1.17
    Central American × after ACA1.150.94–1.400.940.74–1.210.860.65–1.140.940.74––1.49
    Other Latino × after ACA0.730.54–1.001.320.86––1.901.010.75–1.340.970.73–1.30
  • Models also control for citizenship status, interview language, age, sex, marital status, family income, education, US Census region, self-reported health status, chronic conditions, and functional limitations.

  • * P < .01.

  • P < .05.

  • ACA, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.