Table 1.

Characteristics of Included Studies

StudiesPatient PopulationPatients (n)AgeAdult or ChildReference StandardCountryYear(s) Recruited
Teepe et al,13 2015Adults presenting with cough of <28 days' duration3074Mean, 50 yearsAdultPCR12 European countries2007–2010
Karagul, et al,14 2015Consecutive patients between ages 10 and 39 years admitted to a hospital with at least 2 weeks of cough illness214Mean, 26.6 years; range, 10–39 yearsBothPCR*Turkey2010–2011
Park et al,15 2014Patients with cough of <30 days' duration presenting to a hospital or outpatient clinic490Mean, 44.3 yearsBothPCR or cultureSouth Korea2011–2012
Gentile et al,16 2014Consecutive children with clinically suspected pertussis based on typical symptoms, prolonged cough (older children), or apnea (infants)620Median, 3 months; range, 15 days to 8 yearsChildPCRArgentina2003–2011
Philipson et al,17 2013Consecutive patients aged 5–49 years with at least 2 weeks of cough2225–16 years (n = 70); 17–49 years (n = 156)ChildSingle IgG in oral fluid samplesNew Zealand2011
Miyashita et al,18 2013Consecutive adolescents and adults with cough1315Mean, 37.5 years; range, 16–79 yearsAdultPCR and paired serologyJapan2005–2012
Ghanaie et al,19 2010Population-based sample of children with at least 2 weeks of cough328Mean, 11 years, range, 6–14 yearsChildPCR or cultureIran2007–2008
Harnden et al,20 2006Children presenting to a primary care physician with at least 2 weeks of cough172Mean, 9.4 years; range, 5–16 yearsChildSingle or paired IgG serologyEngland2001–2005
Park et al,21 2005Persons aged ≥16 years presenting to an outpatient clinic with cough of 1–12 weeks' duration102Mean, 30 years; range, 19–83 yearsAdultPCR and cultureKorea2002–2003
Narkeviciute et al,22 2005Immunized children with prolonged cough referred for evaluation in a hospital32Median, 11; range, 4–15 yearsChildSingle IgM or IgA serologyLithuania2001
Liese et al,23 2003Children with cough for at least 7 days116Mean, 4.2 years; range, 2.2–6.0 yearsChildPCR or cultureGermany1997–1999
Preziosi and Halloran,24 2003Children aged 6 months to 8 years with cough of >7 days' duration989Range, 6 months to 8 yearsChildCulture or serologySenegal1993
Gilberg et al,25 2002Adults with cough of 7–31 days' duration, without fever or other clear cause123Median, 49 years; range, 18–88 yearsBoth≥2-fold anti-PT IgG, PCR, or cultureFrance1999
Senzilet et al,26 2001Adults and adolescents with cough from 1–8 weeks' duration referred from a primary care sentinel surveillance network442Mean, 37.2 years; range, 12–90 yearsBothPCR, culture, and/or serologyCanada1996–1997
Strebel et al,27 2001Persons aged 10–49 years with acute paroxysmal cough or persistent cough 7–34 days' duration212Median, 35 years; range, 10–49 yearsBothPCR, culture, or serologyUnited States1995–1996
Heininger et al,28 2000Patients enrolled in a vaccine trial or family members with at least 7 days of cough392NRBothPCR, culture, and/or serologyGermany1991–1994
Heininger et al,29 1997All children presenting to a pediatrician with cough of ≥7 days' duration2045Mean, 4.3 years; range, 6 days to 41 yearsBothCultureGermany1990–1991
Schlapfer et al,30 1995Patients enrolled in a vaccine trial or family members with at least 7 days of cough546Mean, 4.7 years; range, child up to 47 yearsBothPCR or cultureGermany1993–1994
Postels-Multani et al,31 1995Adult members in a family with a child who has confirmed pertussis and who have a respiratory symptom79Mean, 36 years; median, 33 years; range, 19–83 yearsAdultCulture or serology§Germany1992–1994
Granstrom et al,32 1991Consecutive patients with suspected pertussis seen at the outpatient clinic of a hospital285Median, 3.7 years; range, 0.3–63.2 yearsBothCulture or serologySweden1986–1987
He et al,33 1998Adults and children with a complaint of paroxysmal cough of any duration584Median, 9 years; range, 7 days to 74 yearsBothPCR or cultureFinland1994–1997
Heininger et al,34 1993Children and household contacts with cough illness3629Almost all (98%) aged ≤15 yearsChildCultureGermany1991–1992
  • * Pertussis positive: positive for insertion sequence 481(IS481) and pertussis toxin promoter (ptxA-Pr); Bordetella spp: positive for IS481 with a cycle threshold (Ct) value <35 and negative for ptxA-Pr; indeterminate: positive for IS481 with a Ct between 35 and 40, and negative for ptxA-Pr; negative: cycle threshold >=40.

  • >100 Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay units in a single sample, or a 4-fold change in titers.

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture from nasopharyngeal swab (cough >7 days) or serology (cough >21 days).

  • § Culture, >=100% increase in immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgA antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and/or pertactin, or IgA antibody levels to PT, FHA, and/or pertactin at least 2 standard deviations above normal.

  • NR, not reported.