Table 1.

Typology of Electronic Monitoring for Cognitively Impaired Individuals

TechnologyCharacteristics7,8
GPS
  • ∙ Device receives satellite signals to calculate wearer's position, then relays it to the appropriate party

    • ∙ Highly accurate

    • ∙ Covers large areas

    • ∙ Requires clear path/unimpeded signals

  • ∙ Enable virtual boundaries that trigger an alert when crossed

  • ∙ Speed and accuracy can be augmented with Assisted GPS or Bluetooth technology

  • ∙ Examples: GPS Smart Shoe, Tracking System Direct wristwatch, Comfort Zone mobile phone, Keruve wristwatch and receiver, Project Lifesaver Protect, and Locate digital watch and receiver

Radiofrequency
  • ∙ Device emits radio waves to a locating antenna

    • ∙ Signal detectable on ground or by air

    • ∙ Receiver must be tuned to the appropriate frequency

    • ∙ Limited signal range

  • ∙ Can be manually activated or used to create a virtual boundary

  • ∙ Radiofrequency identification creates a “tag” to track individuals each time they pass through an area

  • ∙ Examples: Project Lifesaver locating device, LoJack Safety Net

Cellular triangulation
  • ∙ Device connects to the network and communicates with cellular towers

  • ∙ Connects with the closest tower to conserve power

  • ∙ Assisted GPS combines cellular and satellite positioning

  • GPS, global positioning system.